For English, please see below.

Vestbanken blev efter Oslo fredsaftalen fra 1995 inddelt i flg. tre zoner: A, B og C. I zone A som udgør 18 % af Vestbredden, var det i princippet palæstinenserne, der skulle være i kontrol. I område B, som udgør 22% af Vestbanken, skulle Israel og palæstinenserne deles om kontrollen alt imens zone C, som udgør de resterende 60% er under fuld israelsk kontrol.

Ifølge Artikel 17 af FN’s verdenserklæring om menneskerettigheder har enhver har ret til at eje ejendom såvel alene som i fællesskab med andre og ingen må vilkårligt berøves sin ejendom. Der er desværre alt for mange eksempler på, hvordan Israel fordriver palæstinenserne fra deres hus og hjem.

Ét eksempel er Israel’s praksis med bosættelser. Siden Seksdageskrigens slutning i 1967 har Israel bygget bosættelser på den besatte Vestbred. Ifølge den humanitære folkeret, er det imidlertid ulovligt for en besættelsesmagt at overføre dele af sin befolkning til besat område. Bosættelserne betragtes derfor af FN, EU og endda USA som en af de vigtigste hindringer for fred. Ifølge data fra PASSIA, en uafhængig palæstinensisk tænketank, levede der i 2016 mere end 200.000 bosættere i illegale bosættelser på palæstinensisk land alene i Østjerusalem.

Endnu et eksempel på dette kan ses i Hebron, som i løbet af de seneste 24 år blevet forvandlet til noget nær en spøgelsesby. Som modsvar til en massakre på 29 palæstinensere, hvor yderligere 150 blev såret af en jødisk ekstremistisk bosætter, lukkede det israelske militær ned for Shuhada Street, der dengang udgjorde byens økonomiske centrum.

Ifølge den israelske menneskerettighedsorganisation, B’Tselem, er begrænsningerne og den utrættelige chikane, som palæstinensere, der bor i Hebron bliver udsat for af både israelske sikkerhedsstyrker og bosættere, med til at fratage indbyggerne nogen former for normal rutine og gør livet uudholdeligt.

Shuhada Street er i dag fortsat lukket område for palæstinenserne og gaden er blevet et farligt sted at færdes selv for internationale freds- og menneskerettighedsaktivister. Som Issa Amro, koordinator fra organisationen Youth Against Settlements rapporterer, er selv ikke-voldelige aktiviteter blevet ulovlige under besættelsen.

Ifølge den humanitære folkeret kan en besættelsesmagt kun tvangsflytte en civilbefolkning, hvis det er en militær nødvendighed. Khan al-Ahmar udgøres af 32 familier på i alt 173 personer, herunder 92 mindreårige og er blot ét af de 46 beduinsamfund, FN anser for at være i fare for at blive tvangsflyttet i den centrale del af Vestbredden. Israels højesterets domfældelse, der tillader den israelske stat at tvangsflytte det palæstinensiske beduinsamfund i Khan al-Ahmar øst for Jerusalem, viser ifølge B’Tselem, at “de, der er under besættelse, ikke kan søge retfærdighed ved besættelsesmagtens domstole.” Domfældelsen blev dog vel mødt af israelske ledere.

Som modsvar blev det af Europa-Parlamentet d. 13. september imidlertid slået fast i en resolution, at nedrivningen af boliger, skoler og anden infrastruktur af vital betydning i det besatte palæstinensiske område er illegal i henhold til den humanitære folkeret. I det fælles beslutningsforslag fremført af en række europaparlamentarikere, hvoraf danske Margrete Auken var en er forslagsstillerne, blev de israelske myndigheder opfordret til straks at standse og ændre deres bosættelsespolitik samt at sætte en øjeblikkelig stopper for politikken vedrørende trusler om nedrivning og tvangsudsættelser mod beduin-samfundene i Negev-ørkenen og i Område C på den besatte Vestbred. Beslutningsforslaget blev vedtaget d. 13. september.

En anden måde at fratage den besatte befolkning deres ret til “en sådan levefod, som er tilstrækkelig til hans og hans families sundhed og velvære, herunder til føde, klæder, bolig og lægehjælp”, fastsat i artikel 25 i FN’s Verdenserklæring om Menneskerettigheder, er ved at nægte at udstede byggetilladelser. Det er således under påskud af, at palæstinenserne bygger illegalt, at de israelske myndigheder bl.a. nedriver boliger.

Ifølge FN’s Kontor for Koordinering af Humanitære Anliggender i Det Besatte Palæstinensiske Område, OCHA oPt, nedrev de israelske myndigheder 111 strukturer i Østjerusalem fra januar til august 2017, hvilket førte til fordrivelsen af 179 mennesker, herunder 109 børn og påvirkede yderligere 471 palæstinensere.

Baseret på data fra den israelske civiladministration om nedrivningsordrer i område C fra 1988 til 2016 nedrev israelske myndigheder intet mindre end 3.344 palæstinensiske strukturer, 2.907 nedrivningsordrer var på standby på grund af juridiske procedurer, 9.138 var ved at blive nedrevet, mens 487 ordrer var klar til at blive nedrevet. Summen af nedrivningsordrer i område C nåede op på i alt 16.085. 2017 bød på i alt 433 nedrivninger, hvoraf det højeste antal er registreret i område C, hvor 270 palæstinensiske strukturer blev revet ned. Per d. 22. oktober 2018 havde de israelske myndigheder nedrevet i alt 355 palæstinensiske strukturer, hvoraf 270 fandt sted i område C.

Som den israelske historiker, Dr. Ilan Pappe påpeger: “Mens vi taler, er der en ny Nakba (“katastrofe”), der finder sted – den har bare ikke de samme træk og karakteristika som den i 1948. [Katastrofen] i 1948 var på et tidspunkt meget dramatisk og massiv. Den nuværende Nakba er en meget langsom proces med udvisning, annektering, nedrivning af huse og fængsling af mennesker. Det har foregået i 40 år. Det er på en måde en ny version af samme idé, om at få palæstinenserne til at forlade Palæstina.”

Kilder:

  1. “Jerusalem,” The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, faktablad tilgængelig  her. Se også “Jerusalem – A city for all?”, Visualizing Palestine, infograf tilgængelig her.  
  2. “Israel’s demolition of Khan Al-Ahmar and transfer of its inhabitants are war crimes”, Amnesty International USA, 5 July 2018, tilgængelig here.
  3. “Israeli judges give final approval for war crime in Khan al-Ahmar”, by Tamara Nassar, The Electronic Intifada, 5 September 2018, tilgængelig her.
  4. Europa-Parlamentets beslutning af 13. september 2018 om faren for nedrivning af Khan al-Ahmar og andre beduinlandsbyer (2018/2849(RSP)), tilgængelig her.
  5. “How Israel turned Hebron into a ghost town”, Visualizing Palestine, infograf tilgængelig her.
  6. “Life under occupation in Hebron: Soldiers harass teachers and school children, Oct.-Nov. 2017”, B’Tselem, 7. december 2017, tilgængelig her.
  7. “Open Shuhada Street”, Institute for Middle East Understanding, video tilgængelig her.
  8. “Significant increase in risk of displacement in East Jerusalem”, 11 September 2017, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, tilgængelig her.
  9. Israeli demolition orders against Palestinian structures in Area C, 1988-2016, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, tilgængelig her.
  10. Protection of Civilians Report: 9-22 October 2018, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, tilgængelig her.
  11. “The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine”, Dr Ilan Pappe, 30 January 2015, IUPUI Lecture Hall, tilgængelig her. See also “The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. By Ilan Pappe”, Vancouver, 29 March 2009, offentliggjort på Youtube 22. april 2011, tilgængelig her.

 


Even as they demolish my home to rubble

Following the Oslo Peace Agreement of 1995, the West Bank was divided into three zones: A, B, and C. In zone A which constitutes 18% of the West Bank, the Palestinians were to be in control. In area B, which constitutes 22% of the West Bank, Israel and the Palestinians should share the control of the area while Zone C, which represents the remaining 60%, is under full Israeli control.

The Israeli authorities are depriving Palestinians of both their land and property, despite the fact that international law forbids it: according to article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,  everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others and no one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

One striking example of this is Israel’s settlement policy: since the end of the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel has built settlements on the Occupied West Bank. According to international humanitarian law, however, it is illegal for an occupying power to transfer parts of its population to occupied territory. The UN, the EU, and even the United States, therefore, consider Israel’s settlements one of the biggest obstacles to peace. In flagrant violation of international humanitarian law, Israel’s settlement policy has forced many Palestinians off their lands. According to data from PASSIA, an independent Palestinian think tank, as of 2016, more than 200,000 settlers live in illegal settlements on annexed land in East Jerusalem.

Another example is that of Hebron, the largest city on the occupied West Bank, which during the past 24 years has turned into somewhat of a ghost town. In response to a Jewish extremist settler, who massacred 29 Palestinians and injured 150 in 1994, the Israeli military shut down Hebron’s main commercial street for Palestinians, Shuhada Street.

According to the Israeli human rights organization B’Tselem, “the restrictions and unremitting harassment which Palestinians living in Hebron are subjected to by Israeli security forces and settlers keep them from leading any normal routine and make life there unbearable.” Today, Shuhada Street remains closed and the street has become a dangerous place even for non-violent peace and human rights activists. As Issa Amro, the coordinator of Youth Against Settlements reports, “[e]ven nonviolent activities are not allowed under the occupation.”

Under the laws governing military occupation, an occupier can only displace people in case of military necessity. The approval by Israel’s high court to forcefully displace the Palestinian community in Khan al-Ahmar east of Jerusalem this September showcases, according to B’Tselem, that “those under occupation cannot seek justice in the occupier’s courts.” Israeli leaders, however, congratulated the judges for approving the forced displacement of the community.

In connection with the Israeli supreme court’s decision to proceed with the forcible transfer of the residents of Khan al-Ahmar, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the 13 September in which it stressed that the demolition of houses, schools and other vital infrastructure in the occupied Palestinian territory is illegal under international humanitarian law. In the resolution, the EU called on the Israeli authorities to immediately halt and reverse their settlement policy and to put an immediate end to its policy of threats of demolition and actual eviction against the Bedouin communities living in the Negev and in Area C in the occupied West Bank.

Another way Israel deprives the occupied population from their right to “a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care and necessary social services”, as prescribed in Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, is by refusing to issue building permits. It is thus under the pretext that the Palestinians build illegally that the Israeli authorities demolish civilian homes.

According to the United Nations’ Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, OCHA oPt, the Israeli authorities demolished 111 structures in East Jerusalem from January to August 2017, which led to the displacement of 179 people, including 109 children and affected another 471 Palestinians.

Based on the data set obtained from the Israeli Civil Administration regarding demolition orders in Area C from 1988 to 2016, Israeli authorities demolished no less than 3,344 Palestinian structures, had 2,907 demolition orders on hold due to legal procedures, 9,138 were in process of demolition while 487 were ready for execution, among others. The total of demolition orders targeting Area C reached 16,085. 2017 witnessed a total of 433 demolitions, the highest number being registered in Area C, where 270 Palestinian structures were torn down. As of 22 October 2018, the Israeli authorities demolished 355 Palestinian structures, out of which 270 took place in Area C.

As the Israeli historian, Dr. Ilan Pappe points out: “There is a new Nakba taking place as we talk. It just doesn’t have the same features and characteristics of the 1948 Nakba. The 1948 Nakba was in one period of time, very dramatic and massive. The present Nakba is a very slow process of expulsion, annexation, demolishing of houses and imprisonment of people. It is going on for 40 years. It is, in a way, it’s a new version of the same idea, of how to cause the Palestinians to leave Palestine.”

Sources:

  1. “Jerusalem,” The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, fact sheet available here. See also: “Jerusalem – A city for all?”, Visualizing Palestine, infographic available here.
  2. “Israel’s demolition of Khan Al-Ahmar and transfer of its inhabitants are war crimes”, Amnesty International USA, 5 July 2018, available here.
  3. “Israeli judges give final approval for war crime in Khan al-Ahmar”, by Tamara Nassar, The Electronic Intifada, 5 September 2018, available here.
  4. European Parliament resolution of 13 September 2018 on the threat of demolition of Khan al-Ahmar and other Bedouin villages (2018/2849(RSP)), available here.
  5. “How Israel turned Hebron into a ghost town”, Visualizing Palestine, infographic available here.
  6. “Life under occupation in Hebron: Soldiers harass teachers and school children, Oct.-Nov. 2017”, B’Tselem, 7. December 2017, available here.
  7. “Open Shuhada Street”, Institute for Middle East Understanding, video available here.
  8. “Significant increase in risk of displacement in East Jerusalem”, 11 September 2017, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, available here.
  9. Israeli demolition orders against Palestinian structures in Area C, 1988-2016, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, available here.
  10. Protection of Civilians Report: 9-22 October 2018, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, available here.
  11. “The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine”, Dr. Ilan Pappe, 30 January 2015, IUPUI Lecture Hall, available here. See also “The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. By Ilan Pappe”, Vancouver 29 March 2009, published on youtube 22 April 2011, available here.