For English, see below.

  

Kollektiv afstraffelse er en metode, hvor grupper af personer, lokalsamfund eller byer kollektivt straffes for noget, de ikke har begået. I konflikten mellem Israel og Palæstina anvendes kollektiv afstraffelse i vid udstrækning af de israelske myndigheder og kommer blandt andet til udtryk i form af nedrivninger af huse og skoler, forvisning/deportation, konfiskering af privat ejendom, udgangsforbud, vilkårlige anholdelser og tilbageholdelser samt begrænsninger af palæstinenseres ret til fri bevægelse tilvejebragt bl.a. ved hjælp af militære checkpoints, vejblokader og den såkaldte separationsmur, der er dobbelt så høj og fem gange så lang som Berlinmuren. Indtil august måned har Israel fra begyndelsen af år 2018 nægtet 769 mennesker indrejse alene fordi de er nært beslægtede med medlemmer af Hamas.

Ifølge artikel 6 i FN’s verdenserklæring om menneskerettighederne har ethvert menneske overalt i verden dog ret til at blive anerkendt som retssubjekt. Ifølge artikel 9 må ingen underkastes vilkårlig anholdelse, tilbageholdelse eller landsforvisning og artikel 13 foreskriver desuden, at enhver har ret til at bevæge sig frit og til frit at vælge opholdssted inden for hver stats grænser. Ifølge artikel 11 må ingen anses for skyldig i noget strafbart forhold på grund af nogen handling eller undladelse, der ikke i henhold til national eller international ret var strafbar på det tidspunkt, da den blev begået.

Der er således en række menneskerettigheder, der bliver krænket, når staten Israel vælger at benytte sig af kollektiv afstraffelse i de besatte palæstinensiske områder.

Kollektiv afstraffelse af en civilbefolkning er forøvrigt en krigsforbrydelse i henhold til bl.a. artikel 33 i den fjerde Genevekonvention, der foreskriver, at; “Ingen beskyttet person kan straffes for en forseelse, han eller hun ikke personligt har begået” og at “kollektiv afstraffelse og alle tilsvarende generende tiltag eller terrorisme er forbudt.” Genève-konventionerne er en del af den humanitære folkeret. Den humanitære folkeret beskytter dem, der ikke eller ikke længere tager del i den væbnede konflikt, og opstiller restriktioner for, hvilke våben og metoder som de stridende parter må bruge. Den fjerde Genève-konvention blev vedtaget i 1949 og omhandler beskyttelsen af civile i krig. Alle lande er juridisk bundet af disse konventioner, fordi de har fået status af “sædvaneret”, hvilket betyder, at der er tale om internationale regler, der er udviklet på baggrund af staters praksis over tid og er blevet retligt bindende for alle stater at følge.

Når Israel anvender kollektiv afstraffelse mod palæstinenserne, er der således tale om klare brud på den humanitære folkeret. Derudover er der tale om brud på Israels egen lovgivning, jf. Israels Manual om Reglerne for Krigsførsel fra hhv. 1998 og 2006.

Kollektiv afstraffelse er problematisk, fordi der er tale om at myndighederne udnytter deres autoritet- og magtposition til at begå ulovlige overgreb mod en civilbefolkning uden at blive stillet til ansvar for deres handlinger.

Kilder:

  1. “Collective punishment”, Al Jazeera, tilgængelig her.
  2. “Seven Seriously Ill Gaza Women Refused Entry Into Israel for Treatment”, Haaretz, 2 August 2018, available here.
  3. “FN’s verdenserklæring om menneskerettighederne (1948)”, Amnesty, tilgængelig her.
  4. “Hvad er Genève-konventionerne?”, Røde Kors, tilgængelig her.
  5. “Practice Relating to Rule 103. Collective Punishments”, International Committee of the Red Cross, tilgængelig her.
  6. “40,000 Palestinians Collectively Punished after Har Adar Attack”, Bt’Selem, 28 September 2017, tilgængelig her.

Even as I am being punished for things I didn’t do

 

Collective punishment is a method by which groups of people, communities or even cities are collectively punished for a criminal act they have not committed. Collective punishment is used widely as a means to repress the Palestinian people in the occupied territories. It takes many different forms: from demolitions of houses and schools to expulsion / deportation, confiscation of private property, curfews, arbitrary arrests and detention, and restrictions on the right to movement e.g. by means of military checkpoints, road blocks and the so-called separation wall, which is twice as as and five times as long as the Berlin wall. In August, the number of people from Gaza being denied entry to Israel since the beginning of the year amounted to no less than 769 – simply because they had relatives in Hamas.

According to Article 6 of the Universal Declaration of Universal Human Rights, every person throughout the world has the right to be recognized as a legal entity. According to Article 9, no one shall be subject to arbitrary arrest, detention or expulsion, and Article 13 provides that everyone has the right to move freely and freely choose a place of residence within the borders of each state. According to Article 11, no one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed.

There are thus a number of human rights that are violated when the state of Israel chooses to use collective punishment in the occupied Palestinian territories.

Additionally, in accordance with Article 33 of the the Fourth Geneva Convention, inter alia, collective punishment of a civilian population constitute a war crime; “No protected person may be punished for an offense he or she has not personally committed” and the article prescribes;”collective punishment and all similarly detrimental actions or terrorism are prohibited.”

The Geneva Conventions are part of international humanitarian law. International humanitarian law or the laws or armed conflict protects those who don’t or who no longer participate in an armed conflict and impose restrictions on which weapons and methods the conflicting parties may use. The Fourth Geneva Convention was adopted in 1949 and deals specifically with the protection of civilians in war.

All countries are legally bound by these conventions because they have acquired the status of customary international law, which means that they are international rules developed on the basis of state practice, which over time have become legally binding on all states.

When Israel uses collective punishment against the civilians living in the occupied Palestinian territories, it is a clear breach of humanitarian law. In addition, the method actually constitute a breach of Israel’s own legislation, cf. Israel’s Manual on the Rules of Warfare from 1998 and 2006 respectively.

Collective punishment is problematic because the authorities use their authority and power in aid of wanton abuse of civilians without any accountability.

Sources:

  1. “Collective punishment”, Al Jazeera, available here.
  2. “Seven Seriously Ill Gaza Women Refused Entry Into Israel for Treatment”, Haaretz, 2 August 2018, available here.
  3. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, United Nations, available here.
  4. “Hvad er Genève-konventionerne?”, Røde Kors (The Danish Red Cross explaining the Geneva Conventions), available here.
  5. “Practice Relating to Rule 103. Collective Punishments”, International Committee of the Red Cross, available here.
  6. “40,000 Palestinians Collectively Punished after Har Adar Attack”, Bt’Selem, available here.